中美历史教学中批判性思维培育的比较研究
A Comparative Study on the Cultivation of Critical Thinkingin Chinese and American History Teaching
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  中学历史教学;批判性思维;启蒙运动
英文关键词:middle school history teaching,critical thinking,the Enlightenment
基金项目:本文系山东省教育科学“十三五”规划重点课题“基于深度学习的中学历史教学策略优化研究”(项目编号:ZZ2019012)的 研究成果。
作者单位
姬晓灿 曲阜师范大学 
成积春 曲阜师范大学 
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中文摘要:
      21 世纪以来,基础教育进入了素养时代,强调理性、质疑、探究的“批判性思维”成 为新时代学校教育的诉求,这给中美两国中学历史教学提供了一个新的认知视角。在中学历 史教学中,中美两国在对批判性思维的特性与品质的理解,以及如何将其转化为有效的历史教 学方面存在明显的不同,比如,中国教师注重教学清晰度,美国教师则更重视思维发散;中国教 师追求课堂效率,美国教师则给予学生更多自主性选择;中国教师关注学生在认知上的高水平 参与,而美国教师在个性化指导方面的行为更多。同时,中美历史教学与历史学术研究的联系 皆日益密切,教育理念也愈加契合素养时代公民教育的基本诉求。中美两国中学历史教学在 培育学生批判性思维方面的共性与差异,使二者存在着相互借鉴和学习的可能性与必要性。
英文摘要:
      Since the 21st century,basic education has entered an era of accomplishment,and“critical thinking”emphasiz‐ ing rationality,questioning and inquiry has become the appeal of school education in the new era,which provides a new cognitive perspective for history teaching in Chinese and American middle schools. In middle school history teaching,there are obvious dif‐ ferences between China and the United States in the understanding of the characteristics and quality of critical thinking and how to transform it into effective history teaching. For example,Chinese teachers pay more attention to the clarity of teaching,while American teachers pay more attention to the divergence of thinking. Chinese teachers pursue classroom efficiency,while Ameri‐ can teachers give students more independent choices. Chinese teachers focus on students’high level of cognitive engagement, while American teachers focus more on personalized guidance. At the same time,the relationship between Chinese and American history teaching and historical academic research is increasingly close,and the educational concept is more in line with the basic demands of civic education in the era of literacy. The similarities and differences between Chinese and American middle school history teaching in cultivating students’critical thinking make it possible and necessary for them to learn from each other.
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