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申新三厂劳工自治区:近代劳工福利改革研究——以“打工妹”为视点
Labor Autonomous Areas of Shenxin No. 3 Factory: A Case Study of the Reform of Labor Welfare in Modern Times——from the Perspective of Female Migrant Workers
投稿时间:2015-01-23  
中文关键词:  申新三厂;劳工自治区;福利改革;“打工妹”
英文关键词:Shenxin No. 3 Factory, labor autonomous areas, welfare reform, female migrant workers
项目:
作者单位
池子华 苏州大学 
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中文摘要:
      申新三厂的福利改革即“劳工事业”,最大的亮点就是被誉为“树国内工业界模范”的劳工自治区之设,“凡工人自出生至老死,均已顾及”。从“打工妹”的角度而言,涉及住宿管理、教育设施、医院之设、合作事业、兴建多功能大礼堂等诸多方面。申新三厂的福利改革成效显著:保证了出勤率,在给“打工妹”提供便利的同时,也使工业生产得以正常运转;激发了“打工妹”的积极性,提高了生产效率;增强了企业抵御市场风险的能力;缓和劳资矛盾,改善劳资关系;促进社会风气的改良。但改革也使“打工妹”付出了代价:一些“打工妹”失业而成为改革的“牺牲品”;“打工妹”行动自由受限;增加了“打工妹”的经济负担。尽管申新三厂劳工自治区的福利改革存在不尽如人意之处,但成效也显而易见。尤其是在没有政府扶助的情况下,自愿投资建设较为系统的福利设施,组织具有一定民主色彩的劳工自治,这种敢为天下先的精神值得肯定。
英文摘要:
      The welfare reform of Shenxin No. 3 Factory was called “the cause of labor”, and the most remarkable point was its setting up “the labor autonomous areas” which was considered to be a national model in the field of industry. The system ensured the welfare for workers from the cradle to the tomb. From the perspective of female migrant workers, their welfare covered different aspects of their lives, such as housing, education, the establishment of hospitals, multi-functional halls and so on. The welfare reform of Shenxin No. 3 Factory was effective, which increased the rate of attendance. Providing much convenience for the female migrant workers made the factory function properly and kept them motivated and thus increasing the productivity. It also helped the enterprise to avoid potential risks from the market and alleviate labor-capital conflicts. Besides, it bettered social environment and morality. However, the reform also to some extent brought loss to the female migrant workers. Some female migrant workers lost their jobs and became the victims of the reform, and they had no freedom of action. In addition, female migrant workers’ financial burden increased. Although the welfare reform of labor autonomous areas in Shenxin No. 3 Factory was far from perfect, its effects were obvious. The reform was well worthwhile praising in that the factory invested on its own systematic welfare facilities and organized democracy-like autonomous areas without the help from the government.
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