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明代治安管理中的“总小甲”研究
A Study of “Zong Xiaojia” System of Public Security Management in Ming Dynasty
投稿时间:2014-09-05  
中文关键词:  总小甲;里甲;保甲;民兵
英文关键词:Zong Xiaojia, Lijia, Baojia, Militia
项目:中国博士后科学基金面上资助(2013M541533);上海师范大学文科一般项目(A-0230-15-001020)
作者单位
薛理禹 上海师范大学 
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中文摘要:
      根据现有史料,明代治安管理中的总小甲分属里甲、民兵、保甲三大系统。总小甲最初产生于里甲制之中,就其性质而言是一种职役,担负日夜巡逻、稽查盗贼、防范火灾、收敛遗体等繁重职责。总小甲的佥派存在种种弊端,明代中后期在广大民众的强烈反对下,各地总小甲职役陆续改行雇募。明代中期,许多地方为维护本地治安、打击盗匪而设立民兵组织,其中往往亦设有总小甲一职。此后,各地陆续推行保甲法。由于保甲制与总小甲职能有重合之处,部分地区总小甲被官府裁撤,而另一些地区的地方官员将保甲制与总小甲结合共同发挥作用,进而将总小甲融合到保甲制中,成为保甲制的构成要素。
英文摘要:
      According to the available historical documents, the “Zong Xiaojia” system of public security management in Ming dynasty consists of three sub-systems: Lijia, Militia and Baojia. The “Zong Xiaojia” system originated from the Lijia system. The duties covered patrol, thief inspection, fire prevention and undertaking corpses. The weak points in the recruitment of the “Zong Xiaojia” system led to the change of employment from appointment to hiring. In the middle period of Ming dynasty, militia organizations were set up in many areas to fight against bandits, while the position of “Zong Xiaojia” was still maintained. Afterward, the system of “Baojia” was implemented in many areas, and the position of “Zong Xiaojia” was cancelled in some areas due to the overlapping function of “Baojia” and “Zong Xiaojia”. However, the coexistence of “Baojia” and “Zong Xiaojia” still played an important role in some areas so that “Zong Xiaojia” was integrated into the system of “Baojia” and became an element of “Baojia” system.
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