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从私塾到学堂——废除科举前后朱德等人的早年求学之路
From Old-Style School to New-Style School——Zhu De and Others’ Early Educational Path before and after the Abolition of the Imperial
投稿时间:2015-06-20  
中文关键词:  私塾;学堂;废除科举;毛泽东;朱德
英文关键词:old-style private school, new-style school, abolition of the imperial examination, Mao Zedong, Zhu De
项目:
作者单位
邵雍 上海师范大学 
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中文摘要:
      废除科举这一制度变动对19世纪末出生的无产阶级革命家群体的早期人生发展有较大的影响。在私塾就读的学生在学费开支、就学路程、人脉关系方面享有优势,但新式学堂在教学内容、师资配备、教学方法方面明显占上风。1905年清政府宣布废除科举之后,一些私塾并没有因此停办,毛泽东、周恩来等人也没有因此而马上转投新式小学堂。刘少奇、聂荣臻都是1906年以后才进私塾的。不过,朱德、毛泽东等人离开私塾进入新式学堂后进步很快,外语、历史、地理等标准课程的学习连同革命书报在校内的流传,在客观上开拓了他们的眼界;通过革命派教员的教化,孙中山民族民主革命思想在年轻学子的脑海中取代了康梁维新改良的主张,这是大势所趋,也是清政府始料未及的。
英文摘要:
      Abolition of the imperial examination system exerted obvious influences on the development of the early lives of proletarian revolutionaries who were born at the end of the 19th century. Students who enrolled at the old-style private school enjoyed advantages of tuition costs, school experiences and interpersonal relationships, but the new-style schools clearly had the upper hands of teaching contents, teaching staff and teaching methods. After the Qing Government announced the abolition of the imperial examination in 1905, some private schools did not stop, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others did not immediately transfer to the new-style schools. Liu Shaoqi and Nie Rongzhen went to the old-style private school in 1906. But, Zhu De and Mao Zedong soon made great progress in the new-style schools after leaving the old-style schools and the learning of standard courses such as foreign languages, history and geography together with books and newspapers spreading revolutionary ideas objectively widened their horizons. Through the indoctrination of revolutionary faculty, Sun Yat-Sen’s national democratic revolution thought had replaced Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao’s reformative advocates in young students’ mind, which was an irresistible trend and was also unexpected for the Qing Government.
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