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媒体援助、非政府组织与美国霸权的构建——对美国私人基金会媒体援助的实践考察
Media Assistance, NGO and U. S. International Discourse Power——A Survey of the Media Assistance of the American Private Foundations
投稿时间:2016-06-09  
中文关键词:  美国;媒体援助;国际话语权;私人基金会
英文关键词:the United States, media assistance, international discourse power, private foundation
项目:教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目“美国基金会的对外援助研究”(12YJCGJW004)
作者单位
霍淑红 山西大学 
张惠玲 上海工程技术大学 
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中文摘要:
      在国际关系中,现实主义理论把霸权简化为通过军事和经济体现出来的物质力量时,忽视了话语权也是霸权的应有之义。媒体是美国赢得话语权、构建霸权的有效工具。而且,媒体与援助结合在一起生成媒体援助时,更有利于美国获得话语权。媒体援助具体实施者往往是非政府组织。美国私人基金会在二战后就卷入了美国的媒体援助中,发挥了话语主体的功能,它们依靠媒体援助作为话语载体,深刻影响着话语对象。它们高质量的话语具体呈现为多样化的援助内容和不断创新的援助方式,获得了受援国民众的认同和接纳;它们资助受援国的媒体记者和独立媒体,并把所资助的独立媒体变成向受援方民众传播美国价值观的工具;它们紧紧把握甚至是引领国际社会所关注的“发展”议程。这些在一定程度上弱化了受援国政府对信息的掌控,增强了美国在国际信息传播秩序中的主导地位。这一切都有助于美国霸权的扩展和延伸。
英文摘要:
      All power states attach importance to the international discourse power in international relations. The United States is a winner of international discourse power. Both the United States and private foundations play a very important role in establishing international discourse power. American private foundations rely on media assistance as a discourse carrier to influence the objects of discourse. The high-quality content and the diversification and innovation of aid ways have been accepted by people in the recipient countries. They provide finance for recipient media journalists and independent media, and then the funded independent media become the tools of American values. They keep controlling “development agenda”, and guiding the international community’s agenda. To a certain extent, competence of controlling information of the recipient government is weakened, thus enhancing the discourse hegemony of the United States in the international information and communication order.
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