今天是
布衣入仕与中国君主专制政体变迁
Official Careers for Commoners and the Change of China’s Absolute Monarchy
  
中文关键词:  布衣入仕制度;君主专制政体;官僚组织;封建制
英文关键词:the system that allows commoners to enter official careers, absolute monarchy, bureaucracy, feudalism
项目:
作者单位
李默海 山东工商学院 
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中文摘要:
      中国君主专制政体的建立与发展,与布衣入仕制度密切相关,这种相关性主要体现在官僚体制上。作为一种精英录用制度,布衣入仕制度是官僚体制的一个重要构成部分,从外部为官僚体制提供人员支持,保证官僚体制的“新陈代谢”。官僚体制基本上从两个方面影响君主专制政体:一是抗衡贵族政治势力对君权的分割,进而实现君主集权专制;二是通过建立“士人政府”实施“文治”政策,以达到统治长久。这两个方面均离不开布衣入仕。在中国君主专制政体发展过程中,布衣入仕制度也会发生异化,导致官僚的贵族化,而这又会给君主专制政体造成动荡或变态。
英文摘要:
      The establishment and development of China’s absolute monarchy is closely related to the system that allows commoners to enter official careers, and the correlation is mainly reflected in the bureaucracy. As an elite system of recruiting, the system that allows commoners to enter official careers is an important component of the bureaucracy and provides staff support for the bureaucracy to ensure “metabolism” of bureaucracy. Bureaucracy basically affects monarchy from two aspects: first, the political forces of monarchical nobility counterbalance division of monarchical power so as to realize centralized autocratic monarchy; secondly, through the establishment of “scholars’ government” and the implementation of the policy for cultural and educational achievements so as to guarantee the long term rule. These two aspects are inseparable from the system that allows commoners to enter official careers. In the development process of Chinese monarchy, the system can also degenerate and lead to aristocratic bureaucrats, which in turn would bring about turbulence and turmoil in monarchy.
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