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先秦汉初经典中的“精”与“神”及“精神”古义探源
“Jing” and “Shen” in Classics of the Period of Pre-Qin and Early Han and the Ancient Connotations of “Jingshen”
  
中文关键词:  精洁;精气;神明;精神
英文关键词:Jingjie, Jingqi, deity, Jingshen
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作者单位
翟奎凤 山东大学 
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中文摘要:
      春秋时期,“精”作为心意修养的一种工夫,在《国语》《左传》等经典中有集中体现,内心做到精洁、精爽、精明,可以感应宗教意义上的神明。战国时期,“精气”之“精”出现,这种存在之“精”与“道”“德”“神”有一致性,精气有灵,“精”被“神”化,是万物生命力的根本能量,是人心灵明的能量之源;同时,这里的“神”是《易传》所说的本体化的阴阳不测、妙万物之神,不再是人格神。战国晚期,作为一个合成词,“精神”在《荀子》《庄子》《韩非子》《吕氏春秋》《楚辞》《文子》以及汉初的《淮南子》等经典中开始大量出现,“精神”在这些经典中大致有客观本体义和主体心神义两种义涵。作为主体心神的精神,往往也关联着某种心理、心智活动。现代学术语境下的精神往往偏重某种思想性、意志性存在,与早期古典话语下偏重生命活力能量之体或人心灵性能量之体有所不同。当然,在生活语境特别是养生语境下使用的“精神”一词,在很大程度上与战国末、秦汉时期经典中的“精神”还是一脉相承的。
英文摘要:
      During the Spring and Autumn period, “Jing”, a form of mind cultivation, was reflected in the classics Guo Yu and Zuo Zhuan. Astuteness of inner heart can experience deities in religious sense. In the period of Warring States, “Jing” of “Jingqi” emerged, and “Jing” had consistency with “Dao”, “De”, and “Shen”. “Jingqi” had soul, and “jing” was deified. “Jing” was the basic energy of the universe, and also the energy origin of human intellectual. “Shen” was the ontological god in Yi Zhuan rather than the personal god. In the late Warring States period, “Jingshen”, a compound word, emerged frequently in Xunzi, Zhuangzi, Hanfeizi, Lv’s Spring and Autumn Analects, Chu Ci, Wenzi, and Huainan Zi. “Jingshen” in the classics had two connotations: objective noumenon and subjective state of mind. “Jingshen”, as the subjective mind, was relevant to the mental activities. “Jingshen” in the modern academic context was more concerned about ideological existence, and different from the early classical discourse which put emphasis on life vigor. “Jingshen” in the context of modern life came down in one continuous line with “Jingshen” in classics during the period of the end of Warring States and Qin and Han dynasties to a great extent.
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