今天是
20世纪80年代以来拉美城市化模式的转型及其原因
The Transition of Urbanization Model in Latin America since 1980s and Its Reasons 
  
中文关键词:  拉丁美洲;城市化模式;转型;门控社区;人口流动;城市治理
英文关键词:Latin American, urbanization model, transformation, gated community, migration, urban governance
项目:国家社科基金重大项目“20世纪世界城市化转型研究”(16ZDA139)阶段性成果;教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大课题“独立以来拉丁美洲的社会转型”(19JJD770007)
作者单位
韩琦 南开大学世界近现代史研究中心 
摘要点击次数: 133
全文下载次数: 62
中文摘要:
      20世纪80年代以来,拉美城市化模式开始发生转型,原来那种由农村向城市的移民逐渐让位于城市体系内部的整合和平衡发展。这具体表现在:人口流动模式由城乡流动逐渐转向城市之间的流动以及国际移民的增加;大、中、小不同类型的城市发展呈现出多元化趋势,城市体系趋向于平衡;城市内部空间发生了由原来的两极分化现象向“碎片化”趋势的转变;城市非正规经济成为常态,社会和环境问题突出;城市治理面临新的挑战。导致这一转型的主要原因在于拉美地区总的人口形势发生了重要转变,原来那种人口的快速增长已经趋于缓和;城乡人口比例结构也发生了改变。1990年城市人口已经达到70%,农村人口进入负增长阶段,农村向城市的移民停滞,城市化进入“巩固期”;“去工业化”和经济增长的长期低迷,限制了城市痼疾的解决;新自由主义改革和全球化效应的影响又为拉美城市发展带来了新的难题。拉美城市化已经“完成”,但现代化仍任重而道远。
英文摘要:
      Since the 1980s, the urbanization pattern in Latin America has begun to change. The former migration from rural to urban areas has gradually given way to the integration and balanced development within the urban system. Specific manifestations include (1) urban-rural population flow has shifted to inter-urban flow and international migration has increased; (2) the development of different types of cities shows a trend of diversification, the urban system tends to be balanced; (3) the urban interior space has changed from polarization to fragmentation; (4) the urban informal economy has become normal, social and environmental problems are prominent; and (5) urban governance is facing new challenges. The main cause for this transformation is that the overall population situation in Latin America has undergone an important change. The rapid growth of the population has slowed down, and the proportion of urban and rural population has also changed. In 1990, the urban population has reached 70% and the rural population has entered a negative growth stage. The migration from rural to urban areas has stagnated, leading to a “solidification period” of urbanization. The “de-industrialization” and the long-term downturn in economic growth have limited the solution of urban chronic problems. The impact of neoliberal reform and globalization has brought new problems to urban development in Latin America. Urbanization in Latin America has been “completed”, but modernization still has a long way to go.
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭