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从“欢迎污染”到“改善环境”:军人政权时期巴西城市环境治理的兴起与发展
From “Welcoming Pollution” to “Improving Environment”:Rise and Development of Urban Environmental Governance in Brazilduring the Military Regime
  
中文关键词:  巴西;军人政权;城市化;环境治理
英文关键词:Brazil, military regime, urbanization, environmental governance
项目:国家社科基金重大项目“20世纪世界城市化转型研究”(16ZDA139) ;国家社科基金冷门绝学国别史专项项目“巴西现代化进程中环境治理的历史考察”(2018VJX093)阶段性成果
作者单位
程晶 湖北大学巴西研究中心 
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中文摘要:
      巴西军人政权时期(1964—1985)不仅创造了举世瞩目的“经济奇迹”,拉开了此后拉美国家军事政变的序幕,而且开启了巴西城市环境治理之路,初步构建了城市环境治理的基本框架、体系和机制,奠定了巴西城市环境治理的基础,对于巴西城市环境治理产生了深远而持续的影响。这一时期,伴随巴西经济、政治的发展和变化,巴西城市环境治理历经无限制排放阶段(1964—1972)、污染控制阶段(1972—1981)和综合防治阶段(1981—1985)的发展轨迹,不断向纵深推进。同时,军人政府在城市环境治理的思想观念上经历了从“欢迎污染”到“控制污染”、再到“改善环境”的转变,对于环境的认识不断深化。军人政权时期巴西城市环境治理的历史演变向我们清晰地展示了在不同的环境思想观念支配下,人类活动给周围环境及人类自身生活带来的深刻影响,彰显了树立科学的生态环境观、走可持续发展之路的重要性。
英文摘要:
      The period of Brazilian military regime (1964-1985) not only created the “economic miracle” and opened the prelude of the military coup in Latin American countries, but also opened the road of urban environmental governance in Brazil, initially established the basic framework, system and mechanism of urban environmental governance, and laid the foundation of urban environmental governance in Brazil. Basically, it has a far-reaching and sustained impact on urban environmental governance in Brazil. During this period, with the change of Brazilian economy and politics, Brazilian urban environmental governance has gone through the development track of unlimited emission (1964-1972), pollution control (1972-1981) and integrated prevention (1981-1985). At the same time, the military government has experienced a change from “welcoming pollution” to “controlling pollution” to “improving environment” in the concept of urban environmental governance. The historical evolution of urban environmental governance in Brazil during the military regime clearly shows the profound impact of human activities on the surrounding environment and human life under the control of different environmental ideas, and highlights the importance of establishing a scientific concept of ecological environment and taking the road of sustainable development.
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