今天是
现代性语境下道德哲学视域中的教师伦理
Teacher Ethics in the Perspective of Moral Philosophyin the Context of Modernity
  
中文关键词:  现代性;道德哲学;教师伦理;问题教师;主体性德性;客体性规范
英文关键词:modernity, moral philosophy, teacher ethics, problem teacher, subjective virtue, objective norm
项目:国家社科基金重点项目“转型期中国伦理基础变迁及其重建研究”(16AZX018)阶段性成果
作者单位
晏辉 上海师范大学 
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中文摘要:
      教师是面向人的灵魂的职业,是最值得尊敬和敬畏的职业。敬畏感和神圣感是教师的情感基础,令受教育者知识得以丰富、德性得以提升是教师的理念基础,理论理性、创制理性和实践理性是教师的行动基础。教师除了具备常人拥有的基本德性之外,还必须拥有为教师所特有的更加高尚的德性。教师伦理是一个人格健全的人在实现教师使命、履行教师职责时所必须具备的能力体系、优良品质以及必须遵守的教师道德规范体系的总和。德性与德行构成了教师伦理的主体性方面,德性为体,德行为用,体用结合方为型;除此之外,不同层次的行为规范构成了教师伦理的客体性方面。无论社会形态如何变化,为师之道不变,若教师随着时代的变迁而丢失了为师之道,那么也就丢失了教师的精神和灵魂。随着传统社会向现代社会的急剧转型,功利主义、利己主义、个人主义、工具主义似已成为事实意义上的主流文化,问题教师的不断"涌现"令教师伦理成为突出的理论难题和实践困境。看来,教师伦理不是既成的而是生成的,一如亚里士多德所说,德性既不出于自然也不反乎自然;马克思说,环境正是由人来改变的,而教育者本人一定是受教育的。现代性语境下,道德哲学视域中的教师伦理乃是一种试图用反思、批判与建构的致思范式,它运用建构性原则和范导性原则,对教师伦理做道德哲学意义上的沉思,借以给出伦理学意义上的德性构成,指明一种培育和践行教师伦理的理论主张和实践诉求。依照教师伦理自身的演进逻辑,现代性语境下的教师伦理会以如下四个环节而展开其自身:教师伦理的先行标划-作为问题的教师伦理-作为环境的教师伦理-作为行动的教师伦理。
英文摘要:
      Teachers are careers that face the soul of man, and are the most respectable and awesome professions. The sense of awe and sacredness is the emotional foundation of teachers. Enriching the educated people’s knowledge and improving their morality are the teachers’ theoretical foundation. Theoretical rationality, creative rationality and practical rationality are the foundation of teachers’ actions. In addition to the basic virtues that ordinary people possess, teachers must also possess more noble virtues that are unique to teachers. Teacher ethics is the sum of the system of competence, good qualities, and the system of teacher ethics that a person with a sound personality must have in fulfilling the teacher’s mission and fulfilling his duties. Virtue and virtue action constitute the subjective aspect of teacher ethics. Virtue is the body, virtue action is for use, and the combination of body and use is to form a shape. In addition, different levels of behavioral norms constitute the objective aspects of teacher ethics. No matter how the social form changes, the way to become a teacher remains the same. If the teacher loses the way to become a teacher as the times change, then the spirit and soul of the teacher will be lost. With the rapid transformation of traditional society to modern society, utilitarianism, egoism, individualism, and instrumentalism seem to have become mainstream cultures in the real sense. The continuous “emergence” of problem teachers has made teacher ethics a prominent theoretical problem and practical dilemma. It seems that teacher ethics is not established but generated. As Aristotle said, virtue is neither natural nor anti-natural. Marx said that the environment is changed by people, and the educator himself must be educated. In the context of modernity, teacher ethics in the perspective of moral philosophy is a thought paradigm that attempts to use reflection, criticism, and construction. It uses the principles of constructiveness and normativeness to make teachers’ ethics moral and philosophical contemplation in order to give the moral composition in the sense of ethics. Teacher ethics also points out a theory and practice of cultivating and practicing teachers’ ethics. According to the evolution logic of teacher ethics itself, teacher ethics in the context of modernity will develop itself in the following four links: the antecedent marking of teacher ethics — teacher ethics as problems teacher — teacher ethics as environment — teacher ethics as actions.
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