今天是
中国公众参与立法的新路径探析
An Analysis of the New Path of China’s Public Participation in Legislation
  
中文关键词:  人民团体;公众参与立法;制度化建构
英文关键词:people’s organization, public participation in legislation, legislation institutionalization
项目:2020年华东政法大学科学研究项目“我国公众参与立法的新路径探析——以人民团体为视角”
作者单位
陈赛金 华东政法大学 
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中文摘要:
      公众参与立法有利于提升立法的民主性和科学性,提升立法质量。过去十年,中国理论界和实务界在公众参与立法方面做过诸多探索,主要聚焦在公民个体、社会团体、利益集团等方面,但效果不佳,面临诸多困境。人民团体是具有中国特色的政治社团,在参与立法方面具有法律依据和实践基础,具有可行性;人民团体具有“广泛性”“人民性”“群众性”等特征,拥有庞大的组织体系、相关的法律和理论团队、较高的政治地位,其参与立法对民主立法和科学立法具有一定的价值。当前,人民团体参与立法主要依靠政治惯例,需要对人民团体参与立法进行制度化建构。在赋权和范围方面,探索从“局部参与”向“全面参与”转变;在方式和途径方面,探索从“立法参与”向“立法协商”转变;在程序和责任方面,探索从“选择执行”到“刚性规制”转变。通过增加制度供给发挥人民团体在参与立法中的积极作用,构建具有中国特色的公众参与立法制度。
英文摘要:
      Public participation in legislation is conducive to improving the democratic and scientific nature of legislation, and promoting the quality of legislation. In the past ten years, the theoretical and practical circles in China have made a lot of explorations in the field of public participation in legislation, mainly focusing on individual citizens, social groups, interest groups and other aspects, but the results are not good and there exist many difficulties. The people’s organization system is a political system with Chinese characteristics, which has legal basis and practical basis in participating in legislation and is feasible. People’s organizations are characterized by “universality”, “popularity” and “mass”. They have a large organizational system, relevant legal and theoretical teams, and high political status. Their participation in legislation is of certain value to democratic legislation and scientific legislation. At present, the participation of people’s organizations in legislation mainly depends on political practice, so it is necessary to institutionalize the participation of people’s organizations in legislation. In terms of empowerment and scope, it is necessary to explore the transformation from “partial participation” to “full participation”. In terms of ways and means, we should explore the transformation from “legislative participation” to “legislative consultation”. In the aspect of procedure and responsibility, the change from “selective execution” to “rigid regulation” should be explored. By increasing institutional supply, the active role of people’s organizations in participating in legislation should be given full play, and the public participation legislative system with Chinese characteristics should be established.
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