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加拿大协助决定取代成年监护的最新动向
New Developments in Supported Decision Making Systems:An Update from Canada
  
中文关键词:  成年监护;协助决定;共同决定;替代决定;代表协议
英文关键词:adult guardianship, supported decision making, co-decision making, substitute decision making, representation agreement
项目:国家社科基金项目“老年人意定监护制度研究”(17BFX211);司法部国家法治与法学理论研究项目“民法典·老龄监护措施替代机制研究”(16SFB2032)
作者单位
凯瑟琳·坎宁安 加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚法律研究所 
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中文摘要:
      加拿大作为协助决定取代成年监护的全球先行者,倡导尊重脆弱成年人的自主决定权,以最小的限制和侵扰性措施为脆弱成年人提供最大限度的保护。协助决定在加拿大各省份以不同的形式存在,不列颠哥伦比亚省立法授权成年人订立代表协议,明确代表作为协助者的职责以及监督人的使用等;艾伯塔省立法授权成年人签署协助决定授权书、法院发布共同决定令;萨斯喀彻温省立法授权法院委任共同决定者;魁北克省立法授权法院指定顾问协助管理;育空地区立法授权成年人订立协助决定协议委任辅助者。从加拿大的实践经验可知,明确协助决定与成年监护替代决定的临界点,加强宣传教育,提供实用资料与培训,有助于指导成年人如何有效使用协助决定。
英文摘要:
      Canada, as a global pioneer of replacing adult guardianship with supported decision making, advocates respect for the autonomy of vulnerable adults to provide the maximum protection for vulnerable adults with the least restrictive and intrusive measures. Supported decision making exists in different forms in different provinces of Canada. British Columbia’s legislation authorizes adults to make a representative agreement to clarify the duties of representative as a supporter and the use of monitors. Alberta’s legislation authorizes adults to sign a supported decision-making authorization and the court to make a co-decision-making order. Saskatchewan’s legislation authorizes the court to appoint a co-decision maker. Quebec’s legislation authorizes the court to appoint an adviser to assist in management. And the legislation of Yukon Territory authorizes adults to make a supported decision making agreement to appoint an associate.From the practice of Canada,it is clear that identifying the boundary between supported decision making and the substitute decision making of adult guardianship ,strengthening publicity and education ,providing practical materials and training will be beneficial to guide adults in the effective use of supported decision making.
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