今天是
以道立言——《老子》首三章释义
Interpretation of the First Three Chapters of Lao Tzu
  
中文关键词:  道;名;为无为;老子
英文关键词:Dao, fame, no action is taken, Lao Tzu
项目:国家社会科学基金重大项目“伦理学知识体系的当代中国重建”(19ZDA033);江苏省“公民道德与社会风尚协同创新中心”研究项目
作者单位
杨国荣 华东师范大学 
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中文摘要:
      老子哲学中的“道”既指存在的法则,又指存在的方式,二者难以分离。作为存在的第一原理,“道”无论表现为存在的法则,抑或存在的方式,本身没有任何的规定性,“无”主要便表示“道”的这种无规定性品格。就社会文化领域而言,老子强调,随着美丑的分化,审美意义上的自然之美可能丧失;善与不善界限的确认,则导致了价值领域中的各种伪善现象。从治国的方式来看,在文明已经发展的前提下,重要的是遵循自然之道。言辞说教、有意为之都与自然相对,应当加以超越。与之相关的是“为无为,则无不治”。其中的“为无为”与“处无为之事”相通,主要表现为以“无为”的方式展开的特定之“为”,其特点在于合乎自然法则、超乎文明价值所引导的名利追求。老子对自然之道的如上看法,内含多重意蕴。
英文摘要:
      The “Tao” in Lao Tzu’s philosophy refers to both the law of existence and the way of existence, and the two are difficult to separate. “Tao” as the first principle, no matter whether it is manifested as the law of existence or the way of existence, it has no prescriptive nature. “Wu” mainly means the non-prescribed nature of “Tao”. As far as social culture is concerned, Lao Tzu emphasizes that, with the differentiation of beauty and ugliness, natural beauty in the aesthetic sense may be lost, and the confirmation of the boundary between good and bad leads to various hypocritical phenomena in the field of value. From the perspective of the way of governing the country, it is important to follow the way of nature under the premise that civilization has developed. Preaching and deliberate actions are opposed to nature and they should be surpassed. What is relevant to it is that “if no action is taken, harmony remains”, and “if no action is taken” and “relying on actionless activity” are connected. Lao Tzu’s views on the way of nature contain multiple connotations.
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