今天是
人性与道德的伦理之思
Ethical Thinking of Human Nature and Morality
  
中文关键词:  人性;道德;中国伦理思想;西方伦理思想;现代心理学;历史唯物论;善良人性
英文关键词:humanity, morality, Chinese ethics, Western ethics, modern psychology, historical materialism, kind humanity
项目:上海市高峰高原建设上海师范大学哲学项目
作者单位
王正平 上海师范大学 
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中文摘要:
      当下中国与世界抗击新冠肺炎疫情的战斗彰显了人性的道德大美与伟大力量。人性中有道德的善与美,讲道德必须讲人性。道德生活实践召唤我们不能再对活生生的人性避而不见,而应当积极汲取人类的全部伦理智慧,从理论与实践的结合上深入探求人性与道德关系的真理。中国传统伦理肯定人有“好利”“好声色”“趋利避害”的自然本性,重视“理寓于欲中”,又强调“导欲于理”。西方伦理思想不论是感性主义还是理性主义,都认为人性有“自爱自保”“趋乐避苦”“利己心”的一面,又有“同情心”“仁爱心”的一面,人性是一切道德情感和行为准则的基础。现代心理科学理论揭示了由人本性所规定的饮食男女的心理欲求,是道德意识和道德原则产生的客观心理基础,人的从低级到高级的各种心理需求,是人深刻的内在道德动机和道德动力。马克思主义的历史唯物论告诉我们,道德是人们把握世界的一种“实践精神”。人性具有自然本性,又有社会属性,人性通过“需要”和“利益”这两个关键因素对道德具有根本性的决定、影响和驱动作用。道德则通过心理引导和利益调节的方式改善人性。人性决定和制约道德,道德又调节和完善人性。在当前个人与民族利己主义抬头,道德价值观念纷争,人际关系撕裂的背景下,我们应当重建合乎人性的道德理念,大力倡导“善良人性”这个可以成为全社会和全人类唯一达成“叠加共识”的伦理道德,重建良好的道德的秩序,构建中国和世界的生命共同体。
英文摘要:
      The current battle against COVID-19 epidemic shows the moral beauty and great power of human nature. There are moral goodness and beauty in human nature, and morality must be human nature. Moral life practice calls on us to no longer ignore living human nature, but should actively absorb all human ethical wisdom and explore the truth of the relationship between human nature and morality from the combination of theory and practice. Chinese traditional ethics affirms that people have the natural instincts of “good interests”, “good sensations” and “seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages”, and holds that people attach importance to “reason residing in desire” and emphasizes “guiding desire in reason”. Western ethics, whether it is sensualism or rationalism, holds that human nature has “self-care and self-preservation”, “seeking pleasure and avoiding suffering”, “self-interest”, and “sympathy” and “benevolence”. Human nature is the foundation of all morality emotions and codes of conduct. The theory of modern psychological science reveals that the psychological desires of men and women for eating and drinking, which are regulated by human nature, are the objective psychological basis produced by moral consciousness and moral principles. The various psychological needs of people from low to high levels are deep inner moral motivation and moral power. Marxist historical materialism tells us that morality is a “practical spirit” for people to grasp the world. Human nature has natural nature and social attributes. Human nature has a fundamental decision, influence and driving effect on morality through the two key factors of “needs” and “interests”. Morality improves human nature through psychological guidance and interest adjustment. Human nature determines and restricts morality, and morality regulates and perfects human nature. In the context of the current rise of personal and national egoism, disputes of moral values, and tearing of interpersonal relationships, we should rebuild the moral concept of humanity and vigorously advocate “good humanity”, which can become the only ethical morality to reach a “superimposed consensus” for the whole society and all mankind, thus rebuilding a good moral order and building a community of life in China and the world.
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