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人工智能:工具或主体? ——兼论人工智能奇点
Artificial Intelligence: Tool or Subject?—Concurrently Discussing the Singularity of Artificial Intelligence
  
中文关键词:  人工智能;人类工具;形式主体;具身认知;非物质;人机结合;奇点
英文关键词:artificial intelligence; human tool; form subject; cognitive; non-material; the combination of man and machine; singularity
项目:
作者单位
程承坪 武汉大学 
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中文摘要:
      人类智能的本质在于思维,思维是意识的表现。意识是神经元复杂系统涌现的结果,意识不遵守物质守恒定理等物质性规定,因而意识属于非物质。人工智能是非生命的物质,它不可能产生意识。就内容而言,作为物质的人工智能不可能模拟非物质的意识。人工智能只能从形式上模拟意识。这意味着人工智能只能模拟思维,却不拥有思维、不能思维。因而,人工智能不可能成为主体,它只能是工具。但随着人工智能从形式上对人类智能模拟能力的提高,部分人工智能可以成为形式上的主体。缺乏意识的人工智能体不可能实现奇点,但人机结合有可能实现奇点。人机结合奇点虽然不会对人类生存构成严重的威胁,但会给现有社会秩序以及人性带来严峻的挑战。
英文摘要:
      The essence of human intelligence lies in thinking, which is the expression of consciousness. Consciousness is the result of the emergence of a complex system of neurons. Consciousness does not comply with material regulations such as the law of conservation of matter. Therefore, consciousness is non-material. Artificial intelligence is a non-living matter, and it cannot generate consciousness. In terms of content, artificial intelligence as a material cannot simulate non-material consciousness. Artificial intelligence can only simulate consciousness in form. This means that artificial intelligence can only simulate thinking, but it has no thinking and cannot think. Therefore, artificial intelligence cannot be the subject, and it can only be a tool. However, as artificial intelligence improves the ability of artificial intelligence to simulate human intelligence in form, some artificial intelligence can become the subject in form. It is impossible for artificial intelligence without consciousness to achieve the singularity, but the combination of man and machine may achieve the singularity. Although the singularity of the combination of man and machine will not pose a serious threat to human survival, it will bring severe challenges to the existing social order and human nature.
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