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马克思的劳动概念与“三个王国”的自由思想
Marx’s Concept of Labor and the Free Thought of “Three Kingdoms”
  
中文关键词:  马克思;劳动;实践;自由;自由王国
英文关键词:Marx; labor; practice; free; the free kingdom
项目:国家社科基金重点项目“中国特色社会主义自由观建构中的思想资源及其创新整合研究”
作者单位
寇东亮 陕西师范大学 
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中文摘要:
      劳动概念是唯物史观的基石,劳动观点是唯物史观的命门。马克思的劳动概念及其自由意蕴,遭遇不少西方学者的持续质疑、误解甚至否定。事实上,在马克思那里,劳动是一个关涉人类的自我生成、自我发展、自我解放、自我实现的总体性和历史性范畴,蕴含历史本体论、历史批判论和历史目的论意义,具有三重辩证意涵和自由意蕴。具体来说,在历史本体论层面,劳动作为人与自然之间的“物质变换”,凸显“必然王国”的自由;在历史批判论层面,劳动作为“谋生手段”,凸显“偶然王国”的自由;在历史目的论层面,劳动作为“第一需要”,凸显“自由王国”的自由。
英文摘要:
      The concept of labor is the cornerstone of historical materialism, and the viewpoint of labor is the lifeblood of historical materialism. Marx’s concept of labor and its implication of freedom have been questioned, misunderstood, or even denied by many scholars. In fact, in Marx’s view, labor is a total and historical category involving the self-generation, self-development, self-liberation and self-realization of human beings. It contains the significance of historical ontology, historical criticism and historical teleology, and has triple dialectical implications and free implications. Specifically, on the historical ontological level, labor, as a “material transformation” between man and nature, highlights the freedom of “the kingdom of necessity”. On the level of historical criticism, labor, as a “means of livelihood”, highlights the freedom of “accidental kingdom”. On the level of historical teleology, labor, as the “first need”, highlights the freedom of the “free kingdom”.
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